Antiretroviral agents against human immunodeficiency virus

an overview of current drugs and new perspectives

Authors

  • Ingrid Barcelos de Oliveira
  • Claudio Cesar Cirne Santos
  • Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer Paixão
  • Caroline de Souza Barros
  • Rosa Teixeira Pinho

Keywords:

Aids, HIV, antiretroviral therapy, highly active

Abstract

Introduction: Since its discovery in the 1980s, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been the target of many studies. Nowadays, estimates show that 36.7 million people are infected with HIV worldwide. In Brazil, HIV infection overcomes 840 thousand people. Globally, only 53% of the HIV infected people are under antiretroviral therapy. Significant advances in antiretroviral therapy have been made since the introduction of zidovudine in 1987. Objective: To advance the discoveries of the available antivirals demonstrating their functional specificities. Methods: We performed a systematic review with a bibliographic survey in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE and PubMed databases for periodical and indexed articles, from 2013 to 2018 that reported on antiretrovirals used or not in the clinical practice. Results: Currently, there are six classes of antiretroviral drugs: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), entry inhibitors (CCRIs), and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INIs or INSTIs). In summary, several antiretroviral agents under development make HIV entry, reverse transcription, integration, and maturation emerging drug become targets. Conclusion: A multifaceted approach to antiretroviral therapy, using combinations of inhibitors that target different steps of the viral life cycle, has the best potential for long-term control of HIV infection.

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Author Biographies

Ingrid Barcelos de Oliveira

Post-Graduation in Science and Biotechnology Program, Institute of Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil. Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil.

Claudio Cesar Cirne Santos

Post-Graduation in Science and Biotechnology Program, Institute of Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil. Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil.

Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer Paixão

Post-Graduation in Science and Biotechnology Program, Institute of Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil. Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil.

Caroline de Souza Barros

Department of Immunobiology, Universidade Federal Fluminense – Niterói (RJ), Brazil.

Rosa Teixeira Pinho

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Immunology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz – Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

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Published

2022-01-12

How to Cite

1.
Oliveira IB de, Santos CCC, Paixão ICN de P, Barros C de S, Pinho RT. Antiretroviral agents against human immunodeficiency virus: an overview of current drugs and new perspectives. DST [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 12 [cited 2024 Jun. 25];31(2):57-61. Available from: https://www.bjstd.org/revista/article/view/850

Issue

Section

Review Article