Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sociedade Brasileira de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis en-US Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2177-8264 Prevalence and factors associated with bacterial vaginosis in women in Brazil: a systematic review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by the imbalance of the vaginal flora, with decrease in <em>Lactobacillus</em> and increase in other bacteria. <strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial vaginosis. <strong>Methods:</strong> Systematic review based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, filed in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. The research was conducted in the PubMed and Scopus databases in September 2021. After reading the titles and abstracts of 84 articles and the full text of 20 articles, 10 of them were included in the review. The articles were considered eligible if they investigated the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and used Amsel's diagnostic criteria or Gram-stained bacterioscopy in women of reproductive age without comorbidities. The studies were evaluated by two investigators to establish reliability. The risk of bias and the quality of the selected studies were evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool.<strong> Results:</strong> The mean prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the included studies was 25.4% (95%CI 24.0–26.8). In three population-based studies, the mean prevalence was 18.1% (95%CI 16.0–20.5); and in seven clinic-based studies, it was 27.2% (95%CI 24.6–29.9). The factors associated with bacterial vaginosis were the use of sex accessories (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.1–4.9), marital status “single” (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1–1.8), partner infidelity (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–1.9), abnormal vaginal secretion (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and the presence of trichomoniasis (OR 4.1; 95%CI 1.5–11.5). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high, and the associated factors are linked to sexual behavior.</p> Kélvia Cristina de Camargo Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo Alves Vera Aparecida Saddi Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351223 Chlamydia trachomatis Female Genital Tract Infections: Memorium to Professor Per-Anders Mardh <p>Editorial</p> Steven Sol Witkin Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351302 Situational analysis of syphilis cases taking place between 2015 and 2021 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil <ul> <li><strong>Introduction:</strong> Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that represents a severe public health problem worldwide and in Brazil it has not been different. The national compulsory notifications regarding syphilis cases are significantly increasing, and therefore, this fact alone justifies the study of such a relevant subject. <strong>Objective: </strong>This work presents a situational analysis of syphilis cases in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2015 and 2021, aiming primarily at assisting public healthcare authorities in decision-making processes to cope with the disease. Concomitantly, this research aims to build knowledge as well as to provide awareness to the population. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study analyzed data from compulsory notifications reports from 2015 to 2021, available in the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System’s Informatics Department, in the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases and in the Brazilian Health Surveillance Secretariat.<strong> Results:</strong> In the state, 70% of patients with syphilis are aged 15 to 39 years. The rate of patients affected with acquired syphilis that have low education is 48%, and for pregnant women, this value rises to 77%. The declared mixed-race patients represent 48% of notifications for acquired syphilis, and for mixed-race pregnant women, this value increases to 60%. In congenital syphilis, 98% of compulsory notifications occurred for children aged up to 7 days of birth. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Syphilis in Rio Grande do Norte is a public health problem that mainly affects the vulnerable population, predominantly the groups at risk with low education, mixed race, and young-adult people, being of paramount importance to combat the disease through population awareness, as well as through constant and adequate compulsory notification.</li> </ul> Tereza Beatriz Oliveira Assunção Nicolas Vinícius Rodrigues Veras Custódio Leopoldino de Brito Guerra Neto Ângelo Roncalli Oliveira Guerra Renivânia Pereira da Silva Francimária Aparecida da Silva Oliveira Christian Jesus Sodré Wesley Wagner Varela Souza Ana Luiza Matos da Silva Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351221 Per-Anders Mardh, we thank you for your generosity and your existence <p>Letter from The Editors</p> Mauro Romero Leal Passos Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351303