Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sociedade Brasileira de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis en-US Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2177-8264 Epidemiological profile of gestational syphilis and congenital syphilis in a reference center in Northeast Brazil: risk factors and trend from 2019 to 2021 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Syphilis is an infectious systemic disease caused by the bacterium <em>Treponema pallidum</em>. The Amaury de Medeiros Integrated University Health Center in Recife is a reference maternity hospital for high-risk pregnancies and the management of the most common Sexually Transmitted Infections during prenatal care, including Gestational Syphilis and Congenital Syphilis. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the epidemiological profile of the population exposed to these conditions, the rate of Gestational Syphilis detection, the incidence of Congenital Syphilis, and the associated unfavorable outcomes in Amaury de Medeiros Integrated University Health Center between January 2019 and December 2021. <strong>Methods:</strong> This retrospective cohort study included pregnant women and neonates diagnosed with syphilis at Amaury de Medeiros Integrated University Health Center. Data were collected from the Notification/Investigation Forms for Gestational Syphilis and Congenital Syphilis, between January 2019 and December 2021. <strong>Results:</strong> At Amaury de Medeiros Integrated University Health Center, 463 cases of Gestational Syphilis and 296 of Congenital Syphilis were reported. During the three-year study, 4444, 4360, and 4265 live births were recorded, confirming the Gestational Syphilis detection rates — 33.30, 36.92, and 36.10 per 1000 live births, with the incidence of Congenital Syphilis being 26.1, 21.33, and 20.39 per 1000 live births. Pregnant women in their third trimester who were brown, had incomplete primary education, and lived in an urban area were the main sociodemographic variables. In total, 217 (73.3%) patients were diagnosed with Gestational Syphilis during or after delivery, indicating a low prenatal coverage (70.6%). In terms of the progression of Congenital Syphilis, unfavorable outcomes was found in 40 (13.5%) patients, including 16 (40%) abortions, 10 (25%) stillbirths, nine (22.5%) deaths from Congenital Syphilis, and 5 (12.5%) deaths from other causes. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gestational Syphilis detection rates and Congenital Syphilis incidence remain alarming, with abortions and stillbirths being the most common unfavorable outcomes. To change the dramatic situation of Congenital Syphilis in Brazil, the associated factors point to a poor quality of prenatal care and an urgent need to change public policies for pregnant women and newborns, in conjunction with socioeconomic assistance.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Alice Rodrigues Barbosa de Moraes Ana Beatriz Gusmão de Almeida Brenda Labanca da Silva Azevêdo Gutemberg Manoel de Freitas Maria Luiza Bezerra Menezes Rayssa Medeiros de Melo Barros Victoria Lays da Silva Coutinho Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-04-18 2023-04-18 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351304 Evaluation of the follow-up of children treated for congenital syphilis in a municipality in the state of Espírito Santo, when it lacked crystalline penicillin <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium <em>Treponema pallidum</em>. In Brazil, its incidence has increased, along with the lack of penicillin, the antibiotic of choice for congenital syphilis, from 2014 to 2017. During this period, children were treated with alternative drugs, but to date, data from the scientific literature do not recommend another antibiotic. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the progression, according to the established treatment, and evaluate the follow-up in health care facilities in Vila Velha (Espírito Santo) of children with congenital syphilis aged up to two years, born in Hospital Infantil e Maternidade Alzir Bernardino Alves — a reference in neonatology and low-risk pregnancy in the state at the time — from 2015 to 2016, when the hospital experienced a greater lack of penicillin. <strong>Methods</strong>: This is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study based on data from medical records of the hospital and other healthcare facilities in the city. We performed statistical analyses, per health district, of epidemiological and sociodemographic data, as well as those related to visits, their frequency, and clinical profile, according to the follow-up parameters proposed by the Ministry of Health at the time. <strong>Results</strong>: Medical records of 121 children were evaluated, presenting as the main findings: only 35% of the children completed the follow-up; among those treated with ceftriaxone, 55.2% completed the follow-up, and 100% of the children whose venereal disease research laboratory was greater than that of their mother at birth completed the follow-up. Of the symptomatic children at birth who remained or became symptomatic at follow-up, 58.8% used ceftriaxone. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Among symptomatic children at birth, most of those treated with ceftriaxone remained symptomatic at follow-up. The Counseling and Testing Center was the most successful facility in the follow-up of these children. District 5 had the lowest success rate in the follow-up of these patients, and districts 1 and 2 showed the lowest rates of appropriate approach to congenital syphilis during follow-up.</p> Paula Cruz Pironi Cristina Abreu de Araújo Mariana Benevides de Oliveira Romildo Rocha Azevedo Junior Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351218 Evaluation of YouTube Videos on HIV/AIDS: A Critical Analysis of Content Quality and Reliability <p>HIV and AIDS remain as significant global health issues, with misinformation and stigma surrounding the diseases still being prevalent. Accurate and reliable information is crucial for promoting prevention, early detection, and effective management of the disease. YouTube has emerged as a popular platform for sharing and consuming health-related content, but the quality and reliability of its videos on various health topics have been questioned. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to systematically review and evaluate the quality and reliability of YouTube videos on HIV/AIDS. <strong>Methods:</strong> We searched for videos on YouTube using two search terms, "HIV" and "AIDS," and evaluated the top 100 videos for each search term. We recorded video features such as length, likes, comments, views, and upload date. Two independent evaluators assessed the videos' quality and reliability using the Global Quality Scale and the modified DISCERN tool. We classified the videos into two groups based on the source that uploaded the video, professional and non-professional, and analyzed the data using statistical methods. <strong>Results:</strong> Of the 159 videos evaluated, the most common content categories were HIV transmission routes, basic information and definition of HIV, and HIV/AIDS activism and awareness. Non-professional videos tended to be shorter, but there were no significant differences in views, likes, and likes per day counts. Comments were significantly higher in non-professional videos. Professional videos had higher quality and reliability scores than non-professional videos. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Accurate and reliable information on HIV/AIDS is critical for promoting prevention, early detection, and effective management of the disease. YouTube has the potential to disseminate this information, but the quality and reliability of its videos must be improved. Our study highlights the need to prioritize professional, high-quality, and reliable video content on HIV/AIDS on YouTube to improve the public health outcome.</p> Cihan Semet Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351364 Acceptability of teleconsultation in a public service specialized in the prevention and care of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Telemedicine was leveraged for its contribution to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 in Brazil and worldwide. <strong>Objective:</strong> We aim to evaluate the acceptability of incorporating teleconsultation through synchronized videoconference by users and professionals in a service specialized in the prevention and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections, and to identify associated factors. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study with 410 users and 57 professionals who answered a category-standardized questionnaire. Predictors of acceptability were assessed using logistic regression model. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 364 (88.8%) users said they would accept the modality. The factors positively associated with the odds of acceptance were the self-assessment of having favorable conditions to participate in a teleconsultation (aOR 54.8; 95%CI 12.4–242.1; p&lt;0.001), the perception of saving money (aOR 5.2; 95%CI 1.9–14.0; p=0.001), and perceived convenience of the modality (aOR 6.7; 95%CI 2.9–15.9; p&lt;0.001). Factors associated with reduced odds of acceptance were the fear of not being evaluated well (aOR 0.2; 95%CI 0.1–0.4; p&lt;0.001), or remaining long without seeing the professional (aOR 0.2; 95%CI 0.1–0.5; p&lt;0.001). The acceptance of the modality among professionals was 75.4% and the perception of its convenience (aOR 16.8; 95%CI 2.6–108.4; p=0.003) and that the institution has appropriated conditions (aOR 7.7; 95%CI 1.5–40.6; p=0.016) were associated with increased odds of accepting its incorporation in their routine. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Governance should invest in infrastructure and support, secure protocols, digital literacy, and training of its users and employees for video teleconsultation.</p> Simone Queiroz Rocha Mariza Vono Tancredi Mylva Fonsi Denize Lotufo Estevam Simone de Barros Tenore Renata Caricol Dell'Agnolo Rosangela Rodrigues Rosa de Alencar Souza Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-20231286 Clinical-epidemiological characterization of women who received post-exposure HIV prophylaxis in a public hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Prevention strategies are key to combating the epidemic of infections such as HIV and syphilis. The epidemiological scenario of Porto Alegre/RS for these infections shows the need for greater efforts in the area of prevention, seeking to characterize both the population that uses these strategies and the services involved in the care of exposed people. <strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to characterize the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients who received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to HIV treated in a public hospital in Porto Alegre/RS. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective, research, descriptive study based on the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for PEP, updated in 2018 by the Ministry of Health. Prophylaxis request forms and medical records of patients treated were analyzed. <strong>Results: </strong>The population consisted of 87 women who received PEP from January to September 2019. There was a predominance of women aged between 20 and 29 years old (55.2%). The most frequent sexual exposure was consensual (69.0%) followed by sexual assault (31.0%). Porto Alegre was the place of residence of most patients (73.6%). The most frequently used therapeutic regimen was the combination of atazanavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir plus lamivudine. On the first visit, 8.0% of the patients showed reactive results for the treponemal syphilis test. Only 23.0% and 14.9% of patients returned for anti-HIV tests in the first and third months after exposure, respectively, and the results were non-reactive. Only 19 patients (21.8%) attended the consultations between 0 and 28 days after PEP. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was identified that a considerable percentage of women already had reactive serology for syphilis, most women did not return for follow-up within 28 and 90 days after the first consultation, more than half of the women were aged between 20 and 29 years old, and the most frequent sexual exposure was consensual. In this sense, efforts are needed, such as adequate counseling, adoption of interventions such as sending messages by cell phone, telephone calls, and preparation of educational materials, seeking to improve adherence to treatment and follow-up in the service, which is important given the scenario of epidemiology in Porto Alegre.</p> Pamela Pereira Fagundes Kátia Gonçalves dos Santos Cátia Bauer Maggi Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-05-18 2023-05-18 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351256 Prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial lesions in HIV positive and negative women in the city of Florianopolis <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection in women. The high oncogenic risk HPV, associated with others factors, there are a risk of progressing to a precancerous lesion of the cervix and even cancer. This evolution is related to the persistence of the infection and other factors, mainly those that interfere with the woman's immunity. The immunosuppression caused by HIV infection is an important factor for viral persistence and the appearance of these lesions.<strong> Objectives</strong>: To compare the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive and negative women and describe the possible associated risk factors. <strong>Methods</strong>: The sample consisted of 50 HIV positive women (study group) and 50 HIV negative women (control group) recruited from the public health system of Florianópolis during the months of January to April 2022. Cervical samples were collected for cytological analysis and for detection of high-risk oncogenic HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test, with a significance level set at 5% <strong>Results:</strong> HPV infection was more prevalent in the control group, however, HIV positive women had a higher frequency of intraepithelial lesions diagnosed on cytology. Factors such as greater number of sexual partners, depression and smoking were more frequent in the group of HIV positive women. The number of CD4 T cells less than 200 cels/mm<sup>3</sup> was associated with a higher number of altered Pap smears and a positive HPV DNA test. The use of combination antiretroviral therapy and undetectable viral load were associated with a greater number of normal cytology and undetected HPV DNA. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial lesions in HIV-infected women is higher than in women without infection. The presence of HIV infection was the most important risk factor associated with the development of cervical lesions.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Pâmela Raquel Coradeschi Iane Dagostin EDISON NATAL Fedrizzi Sérgio Murilo Steffens Paula Fernanda Santos Daniella Serafin Couto Vieira Ana Paula Farina Pasinato Adriane Pogere Maria Elizabeth Menezes Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351281 Accuracy of visual inspection, cytology and colposcopy in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cervical cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer and mortality in women, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Normally, the prevention of its occurrence is done through efficient screening and treatment programs for high-grade epithelial lesions, which are pre-malignant lesions. Cheaper diagnostic techniques ensure greater access to women, which can prevent a large number of cancer cases worldwide. <strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of visual inspection either with acetic acid or with Lugol’s iodine, cervical cytology and colposcopy in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3. <strong>Methods</strong>: This is a study of diagnostic accuracy. We evaluated 115 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion confirmed by biopsy, 54 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 61 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, from January 2016 to December 2018 at the Lower Genital Tract Pathology and Colposcopy Service of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the visual inspection, Pap smear and colposcopy diagnostic methods was performed. <strong>Results:</strong> The average age was 33.1 years (standard deviation=9.83) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases and 35.2 years (standard deviation=7.97) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. In the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 group, visual inspection tests were positive for <a href="">high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion</a> in 98.1% of the cases with acetic acid and 94.4% with Lugol’s iodine. Colposcopy identified a probable high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 94.4% of the cases, while cytology only in 42.6%. In the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 group, the visual inspection tests were positive for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 91.8% of the cases with acetic acid and 95.1% with Lugol’s iodine. Colposcopy identified a probable high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 93.5% of the cases, while cytology in 65.6%. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol’s iodine, and colposcopy test were more accurate for the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3 than through cytopathology.</p> Beatriz Maykot Kuerten Sandro Aparecido Kanzler Edison Natal Fedrizzi Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-04-11 2023-04-11 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351307 Situational analysis of syphilis cases taking place between 2015 and 2021 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil <ul> <li><strong>Introduction:</strong> Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that represents a severe public health problem worldwide and in Brazil it has not been different. The national compulsory notifications regarding syphilis cases are significantly increasing, and therefore, this fact alone justifies the study of such a relevant subject. <strong>Objective: </strong>This work presents a situational analysis of syphilis cases in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2015 and 2021, aiming primarily at assisting public healthcare authorities in decision-making processes to cope with the disease. Concomitantly, this research aims to build knowledge as well as to provide awareness to the population. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study analyzed data from compulsory notifications reports from 2015 to 2021, available in the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System’s Informatics Department, in the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases and in the Brazilian Health Surveillance Secretariat.<strong> Results:</strong> In the state, 70% of patients with syphilis are aged 15 to 39 years. The rate of patients affected with acquired syphilis that have low education is 48%, and for pregnant women, this value rises to 77%. The declared mixed-race patients represent 48% of notifications for acquired syphilis, and for mixed-race pregnant women, this value increases to 60%. In congenital syphilis, 98% of compulsory notifications occurred for children aged up to 7 days of birth. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Syphilis in Rio Grande do Norte is a public health problem that mainly affects the vulnerable population, predominantly the groups at risk with low education, mixed race, and young-adult people, being of paramount importance to combat the disease through population awareness, as well as through constant and adequate compulsory notification.</li> </ul> Tereza Beatriz Oliveira Assunção Nicolas Vinícius Rodrigues Veras Custódio Leopoldino de Brito Guerra Neto Ângelo Roncalli Oliveira Guerra Renivânia Pereira da Silva Francimária Aparecida da Silva Oliveira Christian Jesus Sodré Wesley Wagner Varela Souza Ana Luiza Matos da Silva Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351221 A new proposal in the approach of vulvovaginitis <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Tradução"><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en">The authors report on a recently published review article on the approach to vulvovaginitis through flowcharts, <br>taking into account the peculiarities of each service, according to the diagnostic methods that are available.</span></pre> <div id="acfifjfajpekbmhmjppnmmjgmhjkildl" class="acfifjfajpekbmhmjppnmmjgmhjkildl">&nbsp;</div> Adriana Bittencourt Campaner Newton Sergio de Carvalho José Eleutério Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351309 The The responsibility and importance of clinical registration: a case of congenital syphilis in Early Holocene as an example <p>Letter to the editor</p> Rodrigo Elias Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351305 Clinical manifestations of syphilis in the oral cavity — a review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by <em>Treponema pallidum</em> bacterium, which impact on a significant increase in contagions reported worldwide, bringing up the need of urgent actions to ensure the control, treatment, and diagnosis of the disease. <strong>Objective</strong>: Given this context, this work presents a bibliographical review on syphilis, aiming to describe the most common oral manifestations that occur on the four stages of this infection. <strong>Methods</strong>: For the literature review, the searches were carried out in the PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and databases of Virtual Health Library. <strong>Results</strong>: Regarding the primary syphilis, the main clinical manifestations in the oral cavity include chancres in the palate, buccal mucosa, tongue, and lips. In the secondary stage, the presence of diffuse and nonspecific oral lesions was identified. In tertiary syphilis, stomatitis and glossitis are present, being the hard palate and the tongue the main affected regions. In congenital syphilis, the patients are affected with dental and jaw malformations. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The clinical manifestations of syphilis in the oral cavity can appear at any stage of the infection, being the oral cavity the second most affected region by this sexually transmitted infection. Therefore, the knowledge regarding this subject is extremely important for health professionals, as well as for the population, being essential to carry out the correct diagnosis and adequate treatment for the rapid cure of this infection.</p> Ana Beatriz Villar Medeiros Renivânia Pereira da Silva Francimária Aparecida da Silva Oliveira Letícia Amanda Fontes de Morais Custódio Leopoldino de Brito Guerra Neto Ângelo Roncalli Oliveira Guerra Andryele Eduarda de Araújo Medeiros Maria Heloyze Medeiros de Araújo Larissa de Alcântara Pereira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351299 Prevalence and factors associated with bacterial vaginosis in women in Brazil: a systematic review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by the imbalance of the vaginal flora, with decrease in <em>Lactobacillus</em> and increase in other bacteria. <strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial vaginosis. <strong>Methods:</strong> Systematic review based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, filed in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. The research was conducted in the PubMed and Scopus databases in September 2021. After reading the titles and abstracts of 84 articles and the full text of 20 articles, 10 of them were included in the review. The articles were considered eligible if they investigated the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and used Amsel's diagnostic criteria or Gram-stained bacterioscopy in women of reproductive age without comorbidities. The studies were evaluated by two investigators to establish reliability. The risk of bias and the quality of the selected studies were evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool.<strong> Results:</strong> The mean prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the included studies was 25.4% (95%CI 24.0–26.8). In three population-based studies, the mean prevalence was 18.1% (95%CI 16.0–20.5); and in seven clinic-based studies, it was 27.2% (95%CI 24.6–29.9). The factors associated with bacterial vaginosis were the use of sex accessories (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.1–4.9), marital status “single” (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1–1.8), partner infidelity (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–1.9), abnormal vaginal secretion (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and the presence of trichomoniasis (OR 4.1; 95%CI 1.5–11.5). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high, and the associated factors are linked to sexual behavior.</p> Kélvia Cristina de Camargo Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo Alves Vera Aparecida Saddi Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351223 Chatbot, ChatGPT: artificial intelligence and/or business intelligence and/or robotic untruths, for now <p>The authors, like most humans on the planet at all times, go through many profound transformations throughout their lives.</p> <p>Let's imagine hominids starting to master fire more than a million years ago. Inventing the wheel, writing, navigating the seas, inventing the light bulb, motor vehicles, Santos Dumont's plane, telex, teleradiography, and so many other things that for each era, it was unimaginable such an advance would be incorporated into daily of human life.</p> <p>Today, in 2023, we are facing a computerized conversation through the world wide web, the internet. For now, called artificial intelligence – AI, chatbot.</p> <p>How much will this technology add benefits in the health area?</p> <p>When will this technology spread untruths?</p> <p>How much will people blindly follow the information and experience huge gains and marked problems, side effects?</p> <p>In these dialogues with the various chatbots already being made available, free or with payment of monthly fees, can these computer programs, after several human-AI arguments, write that, for the situations presented in a given conversation, suicide is plausible conduct?</p> <p>The concerns of the authors are concerns that are valid in March 2023.</p> <p>The editorial tests conversations. And time will show us how to learn, teach, live together, and transform this artificial intelligence.</p> Mauro Romero Leal Passos José Eleutério Júnior Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351330 Chlamydia trachomatis Female Genital Tract Infections: Memorium to Professor Per-Anders Mardh <p>Editorial</p> Steven Sol Witkin Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351302 Per-Anders Mardh, we thank you for your generosity and your existence <p>Letter from The Editors</p> Mauro Romero Leal Passos Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 35 10.5327/DST-2177-8264-2023351303