Lipohypertrophy and nutritional profile among people living with HIV in Southern Brazil
Lipohypertrophy among people with HIV
Keywords:Lipodystrophy, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV, Obesity, Nutrition assessment
ABSTRACT: Introduction: People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are generally overweight or have an altered body composition as compared to healthy individuals, showing a change in nutritional profile over time. Objective: The aim of the study was to characterize the nutritional status, estimate the prevalence of lipodystrophy, and examine the association between lipohypertrophy and lipid profile alterations, and other clinical data of HIV-infected individuals. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on male and female subjects living with HIV, treated at a specialized outpatient clinic, aged 18 years old and over, whether using the antiretroviral therapy or not. Results: The sample consisted of 420 people with a mean age of 43.8 years (standard deviation 11.7). The length of time of the HIV infection averaged 74.6 months, and 91% of the respondents were on antiretroviral therapy. Lipodystrophy prevalence was 35.7%. Of these, 82 (54.7%) presented lipohypertrophy, 61 (40.7%) had lipoatrophy and 7 (4.6%) had a mixed syndrome. Female gender, body mass index, fat percentage, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were positively associated with the presence of lipohypertrophy (p<0.001). High mean total cholesterol (p=0.015) and LDL fraction (p=0.028) also showed a statistically significant association with lipohypertrophy. The sampled participants had a nutritional profile compatible with overweight or obesity. No association was found between lipohypertrophy and ART and the therapy duration. Conclusion: Considering the consequences of overweight as a cause of various pathological conditions, preventive measures and interventions are highly recommended for this population.